KENNETH L. MacRITCHIE
2 Manor Drive
Red Bank, NJ 07701
(732) 758-9876

This is the personal web site of Kenneth L. MacRitchie. The purpose of this web site is to assist persons in circumventing academic track systems, now politely known as "instructional grouping."

Most research regarding "instructional grouping" has been directed at school boards and school administrators, i.e. how to design school system curricula. The most familiar work in this category is Crossing the Tracks, a book written by Anne Wheelock in 1992. However, I have not been able to locate any research directed at assisting persons who have been disadvantaged by "instructional grouping."

Because persons disadvantaged by "instructional grouping" cannot participate in the "gifted and talented" programs or "honors" courses in school, such persons have a choice between learning the subject matter on their own or not learning the subject matter at all.

In the Westfield (New Jersey) Public Schools, the lower grades have featured the Advanced Learning Program ("ALPS"), which is presently being phased out. The ALPS curriculum is being replaced by a set of about half a dozen "gifted and talented" courses. The upper grades feature a system of "honors" courses.

I went through the Westfield Public Schools from Kindergarten through the 12th Grade. I was excluded from various "gifted and talented" programs and "honors" courses. Since graduating from Westfield High School, I have earned four academic degrees, most recently a degree from Harvard. This makes it obvious, that the selection criteria for "gifted and talented" programs and "honors" courses are completely false and invalid.

If a student has been excluded from the "gifted and talented" courses in the lower grades, the student could learn the subject matter from his or her parents. If a student has been excluded from the "honors" courses in the upper grades, the student could learn the subject matter by himself or herself.

Until 2002, the ALPS curriculum was a closely guarded secret; school officials rejected my attempts to obtain a copy of the curriculum. On January 8, 2002, a few hours before leaving the office of Acting Governor, Donald DiFrancesco expanded the New Jersey Right to Know Law. A few weeks later, exercising my rights under the expanded Right to Know Law, I was able to obtain a copy of the ALPS curriculum of the Westfield Public Schools.

I learned most of the "honors" curriculum on my own, over a span of about twenty years, after graduating from Westfield High School. I found the Westfield Public Schools "honors" curriculum a well- designed curriculum, and well worth learning.

Reproduced below are the following:

I. ALPS Curriculum
II. High School Honors Curriculum
A. Honors English Curriculum
1. English II Honors
2. English III Honors
3. English IV Honors
B. Honors Mathematics Curriculum
1. Geometry Honors
2. Algebra II Honors
3. Algebra III/Trigonometry Honors
4. Calculus AB and BC
C. Honors Science Curriculum
1. Physics PSSC Honors
2. Chem. Study Honors
3. Biology II A.P.
III. Gifted and Talented Courses
A. Advanced Mathematics Strand
B. Economics: An Introduction to Global Trade and Finance
C. Living Together in Communities Under the Law

I. ALPS Curriculum

WESTFIELD PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Westfield, New Jersey

ADVANCED LEARNING PROGRAM
Curriculum Guide - Grades 3, 4, and 5

Revised: 1991-1992
Lorraine Mullen
Annesley Swicker

Course of Study
ADVANCED LEARNING PROGRAM CURRICULUM

School Elementary Schools

Length of Course Grade 3 - 33 Weeks
Grades 4 & 5 - 17 Weeks

Credit Not Applicable

Date September 1991

I. RATIONALE

In response to New Jersey's guidelines for meeting the special needs of students with exceptional abilities, the Westfield Public Schools serves students in Grades 3, 4, and 5 through the Advanced Learning Program (ALP). Using multiple criteria, a professional team identifies third grade students for a one-day a week, full year, pull-out program; and students in grades four and five for a one-day a week, half year, pull-out program. Curriculum units developed in areas of literature, history, science and technology are designed to provide opportunities for students to develop creative and critical thinking skills.

II. PREFACE AND OBJECTIVES

The following strands represent a framework within which specific content can be developed for grades 3-5. It is not expected that all areas will be covered in any one year. The activities within each strand will represent an integrated module in which multiple subject areas will be used.

The specific program will be based on the Renzuli Triad Model. This provides for a three-level development of any given strand.

Level One is an introductory level in which all students will participate. Basic background information is covered at this level. Exploratory activities will be provided in a wide variety of areas in order to both deepen and broaden the student's interests and insights.

Level Two develops the processes or operations which prepare the students to deal more effectively with content areas. These activities will constitute a major part of our program and will include critical thinking, problem solving, reflective thinking, elaborative thinking, inquiry training, divergent thinking, awareness development, and creative or productive thinking.

Level Three provides for the investigation of real problems related to the student's interests. This level is only appropriate for those students who have mastered Level Two operations, possess strong organizational skills, and have a high level of task commitment.

It is the aim of the Advanced Learning Program to provide a stimulating environment in which to nurture each student's gifts. A variety of experiences and skills will be used to stimulate and support the student's natural curiosity in order to help him/her reach full potential. It should be emphasized that the program is flexible and is designed to adjust to the individual requirements of the students. Therefore, not all the units within a given area will necessarily be covered, nor will the activities be restricted in the following curriculum.

HUMANITIES

Literature

Level One: Introduce and encourage the appreciation of various
types of literature.

Level Two: Use appropriate literature to teach high level
thinking skills such as interpretation, analysis,
and evaluation. Integrate cognitive and
noncognitive learning through the use of selected literature. Independence of thought will be encouraged through discussion in which the student develops the ability to answer as well as formulate
open-ended questions.

Level Three: Guide the student to create an original work which
will demonstrate application of higher level
thinking skills.

Language Arts

Level One: Expose students to a wide variety of experiences in
the use of the English language, both spoken and
written.

Level Two: Teach critical listening and reading skills.
Encourage students to use English effectively and
imaginatively through the use of a variety of media.

Level Three: Create an individual or small group project related
to student interest. A variety of media could be
used in order to present a final product. Products
at this level might well integrate a number of the
other strand areas.

Integrated Arts

Level One: Introduce students to a variety of art forms through
the utilization of teacher-directed activities as
well as outside resources.

Level Two: Develop an appreciation of selected art forms with
integration of appropriate higher level thinking
skills.

Level Three: Develop an original integrated arts product which
demonstrates the use of creative problem solving.

Noncognitive Education

Level One: Introduce activities to promote group interaction.

Level Two: Provide activities which meet the special needs of
the Advanced Learning Program group and enhance the
positive self-concept of the individual within that
group.

Level Three: Seek alternative solutions to real problems
pertinent to group concerns.

SCIENCES

Mathematics

Level One: Understand and appreciate the concept that
mathematics can be applied to all things in the
world around us.

Level Two: Use the problem-solving approach in order to provide
students with the opportunity to develop alternate
solutions to problems incorporating higher level
skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Level Three: Develop original, creative, and alternative
solutions to real problems identified by the
students. Students would state the problem,
formulate a plan which allows for alternate
solutions, and evaluate the results.

Social Science

Level One: Provide for an appreciation of similarities and
differences among cultures. Develop an awareness of
past, present, and possible future social conditions
and problems. Identify specific problems that may
be studied in depth.

Level Two: Categorize the components of a culture or social
problem. Analyze the interrelationships among
elements of the culture or problem. Synthesize the
elements in order to understand the cause-effect
relationships and develop individual hypotheses.

Level Three: Guide the student in the selection of an area of
interest for in-depth study and in the
implementation of a plan for a project or
investigation. Evaluate the final product.

Physical Science

Level One: Expose the student to the scientific method and a
broad range of scientific fields.

Level Two: Apply the skills of hypothesizing, developing a
procedure for experiment, collecting or designing
appropriate materials, and synthesizing data in
order to draw conclusions.

Level Three: Encourage each student or small group to set up an
experimental design to test an original hypothesis.
Wherever possible outside resources would be
utilized to provide in-depth study opportunities or
mentorships.

Research

Level One: Familiarize students with a wide variety of research
sources, both primary and secondary.

Level Two: Provide opportunities for use of specific research
materials as related to class activities. Emphasis
would be on the use of specialized resources.

Level Three: Help eligible students plan for individual research
projects. Special attention to be directed to
organization of time and format.

Thinking Skills

Level One: Teach higher-level thinking skills through the use
of specific activities in preparation for their
application to all areas of the curriculum.

Level Two: Provide opportunities in the content areas to
develop creative thinking (fluency, originality,
flexibility, and elaboration).

III. SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CONTENT

A. Literature

Literature Appreciation - Grades 3, 4, 5

Exposure to various types of literature through oral reading by teacher of classical and current works, fiction and nonfiction.

a. Develop an awareness of the use of expression and enunciation in oral reading

b. Introduce a higher level of vocabulary in sophisticated content

c. Develop the reading taste of the students on higher levels

d. Analyze and identify with characters

e. Analyze writer's technique and style with a view to improving student writing ability

f. Instruct students in various types of plots, protagonist/ antagonist conflict and components of various genres

g. Develop critical-thinking skills

B. Language Arts

1. Journal writing - Grades 3, 4, 5

Students will be encouraged to write in their journals weekly as one means of communication with their ALP teacher.

a. Promote students' confidence with their expository and creative writing when it is used for communication and not corrected and graded.

b. Guide students to use journals to comment on current events, and to discuss a variety of subjects on their own initiative and in reply to personal letters written weekly by their ALP teacher.

c. Return journals to students at the end of the year and encourage students to keep them as a record of their ALP year. Students may share journals with their parents if they choose.

2. Study of Poetry - Grades 3, 4

a. Develop imaginative individual expression and sensitivity through analogy strategies

b. Use feelings, metaphors, and imagination to discover and deal with information in creative ways

c. Read and analyze various poetry forms, developing original poem samples for each form studied

d. Familiarize students with contemporary poetry

e. Encourage students to express themselves creatively through the language of poetry

f. Develop an awareness of images that express the poet's ideas and feelings

g. Publish an anthology of original poems

3. Study of Poetry - Grade 5

Students will continue this study in order to motivate interest in the appreciation and creation of poetry

a. Explore the importance of figurative language to poetry.

b. Review the part of the riddle in poetry.

c. Introduce conundrums, riddles with answers in the form of puns, which can be presented as, or developed into cryptograms.

d. Introduce ambages and encourage students to develop original ones which can be illustrated and then displayed.

e. Analyze the various patterns contained in rhyme. Practice identifying rhyme scheme. Students will then write their own rhymes according to a pattern.

f. Drawing from the variety of experiences presented to them and using their own creative imaginations, students will write their own poetry.

4. Epic poetry - Grade 5

Study of the epic form using Song of Roland in English translation.

a. Add to pupil understanding of troubadour's role in Battle of Hastings

b. Lead students to compose own poem using epic form as one of culminating activities to study of Bayeux Tapestry

5. Introduction to the Newspaper - Grades 3, 4, 5

This unit presents the newspaper as a learning tool in the area of history and current events, and as a source of a variety of styles for different purposes. The New York Times is used as the vehicle, with reference made to other papers of local, national, and international importance. Current events, based on the Times, will be discussed weekly and students will be encouraged to continue topics discussed at home.

a. Show students basic format of paper

b. Demonstrate most efficient way to skim newspaper daily

c. Lead students to discover own special interests

6. Creative Writing - Grades 3, 4, 5

Designed both to heighten awareness of the various forms of writing and to enhance the students' abilities to write as the forms require, this subject area seeks to teach students in the following ways.

a. Practice forms of letter writing from social to business, using as recipients people actually used as resources by the ALP.

b. Expose students to various poetic forms ranging from simple rhymes to the epic as in the Song of Roland.

c. Encourage story writing, both fictional and autobiographical, as other subject areas inspire.

d. Differentiate among various practical forms of writing such as that required in writing directions, explanations, and descriptions.

e. Require the keeping of journals to be used as a communication tool between pupil and teacher. Journals are returned to pupils at end of year as their personal record.

7. Study of Genre - Grade 5

This program selects a specific genre in literature to explore in-depth. This year the genre selected will be that of the mystery - the study of Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes.

a. The Annotated Sherlock Holmes, Volumes I and II, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, edited by William S. Baring-Gould will be our primary source. Each group of students will be exposed to both his novels and his short stories.

b. Help students to research and share background information on Conan Doyle's life, politics of the time, specialized vocabulary of the period, geography of England and the continent, etc.

c. Discuss with students such related topics as: the status of women, child labor, environmental science, flora and fauna of the British Empire, drug usage of that period, etc.

C. Integrated Arts

While it should be stated that artistic experience may be an outgrowth, spontaneous or planned, of any part of the curriculum, this strand seeks to give pupils specific experiences in certain areas.

1. Introduction to Art Forms - Grades 3, 4, 5

Expose students to activities designed to encourage application of critical-thinking skills to areas traditionally thought of as strictly creative. Art, literature, music, and architecture are approached from unique angles, allowing students to explore beyond simple observation or appreciation and to analyze the thinkings on the part of the creator.

2. Artistic Analysis and Criticism - Grades 3, 4, 5

Assist students in becoming informed critics. Students will be exposed to a variety of art media using examples of master artists. They will learn correct vocabulary, terminology, research techniques, public relations approaches, and duties of museum docents.

3. Art Appreciation - Grades 3, 4, 5

Expose students to a series of art appreciation experiences, comparing and contrasting styles and techniques of both the old masters and modern artists in a variety of forms - animals, portraiture, landscape, still life, etc. Culminating activities may include trips to leading museums of art. (These are excellent parent-inclusion opportunities!)

4. Introduction to Drama - Grades 3, 4, 5

Provide experiences in creative drama which will involve extemporaneous speech, spontaneous activity, movement, and imagination. These experiences will encourage the development of simple characterizations and interaction with other students to create an immediate experience.

5. Study of Islamic Art - Grade 3

Introduce students to the cultural, mathematical, and artistic principles which underlie the wealth of Islamic Art. Culminating activities may include a visit to the Hall of Islamic Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Students will be encouraged to create their own designs following the mathematical principles of Islamic Art.

6. Introduction to Shakespeare - Grades 3, 4

Introduce students to the Age of Shakespeare. Begin familiarity with storylines underlying plays.

7. Study of American Art - Grade 3

Students will study the design of American household furnishings to observe how they have changed in the past three hundred years. The study of these objects will help students think about American life and society and how they have changed over time. Students will experience exercises in observing, writing, and sketching. They will study slides of objects and interiors from the early Colonial Period and the Federal Period.

8. Children's Theatre - Critical Analysis - Grades 3, 4

On-going invitational previews of children's theatre performances by nationally-acclaimed troupes.

a. Practice skills of written critical analysis

b. Evaluate plays on critical evaluation forms

c. Analyze and summarize results and send results in letter form to producers

D. Noncognitive Education

The teachers of this curriculum, which is designed to meet the specific needs of the academically more able child, are aware that these youngsters often face problems which center upon the interpersonal relationships of the learning group. Bearing in mind that the best learning takes place in an atmosphere of mutual respect, we have designed activities to teach the following.

1. Contentment in the classroom

2. Consideration for others

3. Expressions of courtesy

4. Humane behavior when confronted with handicaps and misfortunes of others

5. Awareness of individual worth including self-worth

6. Ability to contend with varying points of view and to disagree, when necessary, from a problem-solving perspective

E. Mathematics

1. Development of the Spatial Relation - Grade 4

a. Introduces basic elements of transformational geometry

b. Teaches students to:

1) Measure angles up to 360 degrees

2) Become familiar with the plane geometry of circles

3) Calculate speed as being the distance traveled in unit time

4) Become proficient in the use of compasses

5) Demonstrate a working knowledge of equilateral triangles,
perpendicular lines, and parallels

6) Demonstrate a working knowledge of surface area

7) Construct and use a continuous straight line graph

8) Determine some loci from the movement of objects

2. Study of the Stock Market - Grade 5

a. Use a simulation such as The N.J. Stock Market Game to have students become involved in the actual process of buying and selling stocks

b. Develop skills of computing percentages, writing checks, keeping a simple balance sheet, and utilizing a pocket calculator

c. Introduce reading the stock reports in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal

d. Invite guest speakers to talk to the students about the Stock Market

3. The Mathematics of Islamic Art - Grades 3, 4

This unit introduces students to the many varieties of Islamic Art as found in tile, stone, glass, weaving, etc. In the course of their study, students will:

a. Become aware of aspects of artistic culture in the Third World

b. Discover that Islamic Art is based upon order and logic

c. Learn the geometric principles governing pattern and design

d. Differentiate between religious and secular art

e. Identify the important milestones in Islamic history

4. Computer Technology Using LegoLogo - Grades 3, 4, 5

LegoLogo utilizes methods for the investigation of simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which help us to understand them. It is the intent of this unit to help pupils learn these concepts by using Lego Technic materials wherever possible.

Practical applications will be utilized: levers, pulleys, wheels and axles, gears, belts, inclined planes (wedges), parallel and trapezium steering, and screws.

During this unit, the pupils will become familiar with the following concepts about simple machines:

a. Understand that humans have developed simple machines to make their work easier

b. Know the five simple machines and their characteristics

c. Be able to recognize the practical applications of simple machines

d. Recognize that simple machines make work easier, but do not save work

e. Recognize that a simple machine may:

1) Change the direction of a force

2) Multiply a force

3) Transfer a force from one place to another

4) Increase the speed with which work is done

f. Be able to use gears/belts in combinations to transfer/multiply force

g. Recognize that friction is a factor in the operation of all machines

h. Recognize that friction has advantages and disadvantages

i. Recognize that machines provide a mechanical advantage, i.e., a way to measure the degree to which work is made easier

j. Be able to transfer two-dimensional drawings to three-dimensional constructions

5. Logowriter - Grades 3 and 4

Logowriter is a software package which enables students to write and to illustrate stories, create animation, design crossword puzzles, draw and label charts and graphs, put information into a data base and learn how to program. Logowriter integrates word processing, graphics and programming into one tool.

a. Introduce students to the logowriter primitives through self-involvement in spatial relationship activities as well as to reinforce following and giving precise directions.

b. Strengthen creativity and discover learning abilities by allowing sufficient time for each individual to experiment on his/her own in a computer-lab environment.

c. Develop problem-solving skills by finding ways to improve and shorten a program they have written.

d. Strengthen concepts of spatial relationships.

e. Encourage procedural thinking (logic, sequence, order).

f. Introduce computer programming concepts by writing procedures.

g. Build on their knowledge of mathematical concepts and skills and apply this knowledge to a new situation i.e. using variables instead of an assigned number.

h. Develop an awareness of geometry concepts - understanding of angles in relation to self.

i. Strengthen measuring skills, linear and angular.

j. Strengthen language arts concepts by introducing editing mode and writing procedures.

k. Locate and correct errors in procedures and to understand error messages in command center, learn how to "debug" a program.

l. Introduce concept of recursion.

6. Telecommunication

Telecommunication is a means of accessing very large amounts of information utilizing a computer and modem within our classroom. It will enable children to search databases, consult references, as well as to interact with students in other cities. It also allows for teacher interaction with colleagues from all over the state. We will be using Logoexpress which is the telecommunication version of Logowriter, FrEdMail (Free Educational Electronic Mail Network) as well as the New Jersey Network which is operated by the New Jersey Department of Education. This clearinghouse for educational resources offers the following features:

a. New Jersey Focus - the system focuses on information of interest to people living and working in New Jersey.

b. Curriculum Connection - A searchable database of instructional television programming.

c. NJN Data - A searchable database of all NJN programming.

d. Forums - repositories of specific content information, plus links to various organizations and special interest groups.

e. Discussions - share ideas on an existing topic or initiate discussion on a new topic. Exchange ideas with other classes within the state using Legologo and Logowriter.

f. Culture Catalogs - searchable databases of cultural, historical and scientific organizations.

g. Mail and bulletin boards - for private and public messaging to other subscribers throughout the state.

h. Print materials - schedules, newsletters, program and resource guides sent directly throughout the state.

i. Toll free access - 24 hours a day, 7 days per week.

Objectives:

1. Promote the development of effective reading, writing, and communication skills.

2. Promote a better understanding of telecommunications technologies, and encourage and promote their effective use.

3. Promote articulation between students and teachers throughout the state by participating in an interactive manner. Students must read, think, formulate opinions, select the right works and write.

F. Social Science

1. Experiences in Foreign Language - Grade 3

The foreign language experience seeks to expose all children in Grade 3 to an eight-week unit, half-hour weekly immersion in a foreign language. It is felt that the younger a child can be exposed to the "ear" of a foreign tongue, the more readily can proper accent be acquired, leaving the necessary grammatical and syntactical study to later years. Borrowing from Disney's "It's a Small, Small World," the culture of the mother country for a given language will also be studied, and activities appropriate to their customs will be incorporated. Children will be assigned one of five languages: Spanish, Italian, French, German, or Latin.

Instructors are carefully chosen high school seniors in advanced placement courses who have volunteered their time. They will be working closely with the ALP teachers and will be supervised by the language department head at the High School.

2. Discovering History - Grade 5

This is a study which uses as a focal point an in-depth analysis of the Bayeux Tapestry. We believe that this close examination is the best way to understand what is involved in the study of history. This topic was chosen because it has an exciting story, a great deal of fairly easily accessible evidence, some outstanding personalities, and a colorful setting.

a. Assist children toward historical understanding

1) To stimulate an awareness of the nature and range of
historical evidence and its use in the study of history

2) To learn how to interpret historical evidence

3) To stimulate the imaginative sense of the past

4) To make children aware of the history around us

5) To apply some of the skills which have been learned in
making an independent inquiry

6) To develop learning skills through historical study

a) To aid in the development of writing skills

b) To encourage the students to look closely and to read
carefully so that they become aware of the subtleties
involved as well as of the obvious facts

c) To develop reference skills

7) Research all aspects of the Middle Ages, i.e. art,
architecture, law - all of which correlate with other
aspects of the curriculum

3. Architecture - Grade 3

"I Know That Building!": An Introduction to Architecture - Grade 3

This is a unit designed to open the eyes and minds of young children to the wealth of architectural styles and details used by human beings in providng shelter through the ages - with specific focus on local domestic architecture.

In the course of this overview, students will:

a. Brainstorm reasons for building, types of shelter, site requirements, building materials, etc.

b. Design domestic shelters appropriate to various climatic and socioeconomic conditions.

c. Read, or have read to them, appropriate books by Devlin, Isaacson, Stern, etc.

d. Research, through multi-media materials as well as on-site walking tours, the various styles of architecture in this area.

e. Share with each other data about their own homes as to style, building materials, etc.

f. Study and apply basic architectural names and terms

g. Identify and be able to describe, using appropriate terminology, styles of local domestic architecture

h. Demonstrate awareness of the multicultural influences in architecture.

4. Study of Inventions - Grade 3

Inventions fill a need or help us to solve a problem. Most inventions are only attempts to help ourselves to solve the problem facing us at that particular instant. Some inventions are more noteworthy and dramatically affect civilization. Regardless of the significance of the invention, the process is similar, and this inventive process can be learned.

The activities in this unit are designed to introduce students to the creative process which makes discovery and invention possible; to highlight a broad range of discoveries and inventions; and to encourage innovation, dreaming and inventing. It is also intended to make students more aware of problems that need solutions, to be more creative in posing solutions, and the importance of being meticulous about testing ideas.

In developing creative and innovative thinking, students will:

a. Research famous inventors, their lives, and their inventions

b. Examine the background, family and environmental influences of famous inventors

c. Study the needs and demands motivating persons to invent a product

d. Study the impact, influences, and changes inventions have made on people and society

e. Develop and practice creative and inventive thinking skills

f. Encourage processes of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration in creative and inventive thinking

g. Practice brainstorming techniques for generating ideas and solutions

h. Explore alternative solutions using S-C-A-M-P-E-R checklist

i. Observe and listen to outside resource persons as they share their inventive process experiences

5. Legal Issues - Grade 5

This study enables the student to have meaningful and lasting learning experieces in the areas of contract law, torts law, juvenile law, and criminal law.

a. Help students develop an awareness of the importance of laws and how the law touches every aspect of their lives

b. Provide students with the opportunity to study, discuss, and observe, through field trips, our judicial system at work on the county and state levels

c. Acquaint students with the local legal system

d. Familiarize students with terms used in the legal professions

e. Make students aware of the various professions involved in law

f. Provide students with experiences in problem-solving and decision-making

g. Help students to understand that law is a tool for the protection of individual rights and at the same time makes it possible for groups to live together

h. Help students develop an appreciation for our system of law and the people involved

i. Provide students the opportunities to demonstrate their concept of legal issues by planning and enacting trials based on actual cases. Some students may proceed to Level Three activities by creating their own trials.

j. Explore the history of criminal law by studying a series of America's landmark trials using a method which will enable the students to become prosecutor, defense attorney, judge, and jury for each trial

G. Physical Science

Introduction to Aerospace - Grade 3

In 1984, President Reagan announced the formation of a new private sector initiative to stimulate the spirit of scientific inquiry in our nation's youth. The initiative, called the Young Astronaut Program, was formally launched by the President. The Young Astronaut Council has been formed to establish policy and provide direction for the creation of materials and activities of the Young Astronaut Program. A major component of the program is the formation of Young Astronaut Chapters in schools and communities across the country. The program is an aid to increasing children's awareness of an appreciation of this country's contributions to society and the world at large and develop a more technologically proficient work force.

a. Develop an understanding of the following concepts:

1) Things are held down on earth by gravity

2) Outer space is even bigger than earth

3) Attaining a high speed is one way to overcome the pull of
gravity

4) In order for an object to stay in orbit, the effects of
gravity and speed must balance each other

5) The force of gravity varies with mass of body and distance

b. Motivate students to pursue educational endeavors related to science, mathematics, and technology

c. Provide students with the basic information and skills necessary to begin preparation for the infinite variety of aerospace related careers open to them in the future

d. Use curricular information and activities designed specifically for the capabilities and interest of students as per the monthly bulletins from the Young Astronaut Council

H. Introduction to and Development of Research Skills - Grades 3, 4, 5

1. Explore various methods of choosing a topic to research with consideration for availability of resources and reference materials to aid in investigations

2. Practice narrowing down a specific topic from a broad major issue, problem, or theme

3. Take trips to public library to provide experience in locating nonfiction materials and information in the library

4. Plan a method of study or a course of action for solving research problems

5. Use materials in "Hooked on Research" to provide students with varied activities using nonfiction materials

6. Recognize the importance of the resource person and his/her relationship to the field of study and utilize this source

7. Provide experience in the skills of notetaking, outlining, and in writing bibliographies

8. Develop and report conclusions in a final product

I. Critical Thinking and Creative Problem Solving - Grades 3, 4, 5

1. Development of higher-level thinking skills

a. Use Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in order to develop higher level thinking skills

b. Make students aware of the various levels, encouraging them to do independent research at the application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation levels

2. Introduce and develop the five-stage process of critical thinking

a. Explore the facts of the situation (FACT FINDING)

b. Speculate on possible problems, narrow down to the major problem and restate it for creative attack (PROBLEM FINDING)

c. Brainstorm for ideas or alternative solutions to the problem (IDEA FINDING)

d. Choose those alternatives which have the greatest potential as solutions to the problem, and evaluate them on the basis of criteria appropriate to the needs of our problem (SOLUTION FINDING)

e. Devise a plan of action or a method of implementing the most promising solution (ACCEPTANCE FINDING)

3. Develop divergent thinking and imagination

Use the S-C-A-M-P-E-R technique for the development of divergent thinking

a. SUBSTITUTE - To have a person or thing act or serve in the place of another

b. COMBINE - To bring together, to unite

c. ADAPT - To adjust for the purpose of suiting a condition or purpose

d. MODIFY - To alter, to change the form or quality
MINIFY - To make smaller, lighter, slower
MAGNIFY - To enlarge, to make greater in form or quality

e. PUT TO OTHER USES - To be used for purposes other than originally intended

f. ELIMINATE - To remove, omit, or get rid of a quality, part or whole

g. REVERSE - To place opposite or contrary to, to turn it around

h. REARRANGE - To change order or adjust, different play, layout or scheme

4. Develop creative problem solving using simulation games

a. Duplicate real life situations to provide an experience that has meaning to the participants

b. Encourage group interaction

5. Develop inventive thinking

a. Explore unique ways of looking at common objects

b. Develop uncommon uses for them

c. Transform objects into new inventions

6. Develop sensitivity to problems

a. Fluency of ideas and associations - the ability to think of many ideas, many possible solutions to a problem

b. Flexibility - the ability to go beyond tradition and the obvious, to turn ideas and materials to new, different, and unusual uses

c. Originality - give uniquely different responses from other people

d. Elaboration - states many details related to the creative response indicating how it may be constructed, implemented, etc.

e. Redefinition - the ability to rearrange

f. Analysis - the ability to abstract

IV. METHODOLOGY

A. Creative-problem solving process

B. Higher-level questioning techniques by student and teacher

C. Scientific process

D. Reading

1. Oral by teacher

2. Student (newspapers, literature, maps, charts, etc.)

E. Teacher lecture and demonstration

F. Small group instruction

G. Individualized instruction

H. Discussion groups

I. Audio-visual materials (video, cassette, overhead projector, etc.)

J. Visiting lecturers and experts in their fields

K. Student lecturers

L. Cooperative teaching with selected high school students and teachers

M. Team teaching

N. Field trips

O. Student research

P. Mock trials

Q. Computer

R. Telephoning (information, interviewing, research, and trial dispositions)

S. Role-playing

T. Group interaction

U. Student writing and record keeping

V. Drama

W. Interviewing

X. Debating

Y. Student inventing

Z. Bulletin boards and chalkboards

V. EVALUATION

Evaluation is an on-going process using both formal and informal methods of assessment.

A. Formal

1. Examination and assessment of pupil folders

2. Report cards

3. Parent conferences as needed

B. Informal

1. Teacher observation of

a. Growth in the thinking skills inherent in each of the content areas previously listed

b. Group and individual interaction

c. Study skills, particularly with an eye to task commitment and organization

SUGGESTED FIELD TRIPS
Grades 3, 4, 5

1. Trips to New Jersey courthouses

2. Trips to museums of art both introductory as well as those specifically appropriate to the curriculum such as The Cloisters, the Metropolitan Museum of Art - Medieval Hall and American Wing, the Museum of Modern Art, Hall of Science.

3. Trips related to architecture

4. Trips to the Cathedral of St. John the Divine to study art and architecture of the early Middle Ages, with particular emphasis on stonecutting techniques

5. Trips to the P.A.C.T. Showcase to help evaluate children's theatre

6. Trips to the Stock Market and Wall Street historical district

7. Walking trips within local area, related to curriculum

II. High School Honors Curriculum

A. Honors English Curriculum

In learning the honors English curriculum, one needs to find some source of explanation and interpretation for the literature in question. I found the Cliff Notes and the Monarch Notes adequate for this purpose.

1. English II Honors

1. The Short Story - Textbooks:
Adventures in Appreciation
Designs in Fiction
Short Story II
Ten Modern American Short Stories

2. The Novel:
All Quiet on the Western Front
The Catcher in the Rye
The Heart is a Lonely Hunter
Lord of the Flies
The Old Man and the Sea
The Pearl
Of Mice and Men
Tess of the D'Urbervilles
Silas Marner
A Tale of Two Cities
A Secret Sharer
Fathers and Sons
Wuthering Heights
A Separate Peace
We Have Lived in the Castle

3. Drama:
Julius Caesar
Othello
The Merchant of Venice
The Tempest
The Taming of the Shrew
The Winslow Boy
Inherit the Wind
Our Town
Saint Joan
Becket
The Andersonville Trial
The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds
Man in the Dramatic Mode
Twelve Angry Men
Much Ado about Nothing
Three Dramas of American Individualism

4. Poetry
Adventures in Appreciation
Designs in Poetry
Poetry II
I Am the Darker Brother

5. Composition
Warriner's English Grammar and Composition (Fourth Course)
Building Word Power
Composition Models and Exercises (10)
The Elements of Style
Writing Good Paragraphs

2. English III Honors

Novel/Novella:
The Scarlet Letter
The Great Gatsby
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
A Farewell to Arms
Ethan Frome
The Sun Also Rises
You Can't Go Home Again
As I Lay Dying
Native Son
A Death in the Family
Washington Square
Daisy Miller
Miss Lonely Hearts
The Grapes of Wrath
Moby Dick

Short Story:
Major Writers of America
The American Experience: Fiction
Modern American Short Stories
American Negro Short Stories

Drama:
Major Writers of America
The Crucible
Death of a Salesman
The Glass Menagerie
The Skin of Our Teeth
The Iceman Cometh
The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail
Macbeth
The Trial of the Catonsville Nine
Famous American Plays of the 1920s
Famous American Plays of the 1930s
Famous American Plays of the 1940s
Famous American Plays of the 1950s
The American Experience: Drama

Poetry:
The American Experience: Poetry
Major Writers of America
The Trial of the Catonsville Nine
Macbeth

Non-Fiction:
Walden
On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
Selected Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson
Major Writers of America
North Toward Home
The American Experience: Non-Fiction

Grammar:
Warriner's Complete Grammar and Composition

Composition:
Warriner's Complete Grammar and Composition
The Elements of Style
Westfield High School English Department Style Manual
Writing Themes About Literature

3. English IV Honors

The teacher may follow either of the following approaches: Chronological/Genre or Thematic

A. Chronological, Genre Sequence

1. Development of Drama
Aeschylus Agamemnon
Sophocles Oedipus Cycle, Antigone
Euripides Medea
Shakespeare Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, The Tempest,
Twelfth Night
Ibsen Ghosts, A Doll's House, An Enemy of the
People, The Wild Duck, Hedda Gabler
Plays by Strindberg
Plays by Chekhov
Shaw Caesar and Cleopatra
MacLeish JB
Albee Zoo Story, The American Dream
Williams Streetcar Named Desire
Beckett Waiting for Godot
O'Neill Plays by and about Women

(Other plays at the discretion of the teacher, subject to availability.)

2. Development of Poetry
Chaucer
Sound and Sense
The Now Voice
(Teacher selected poetry)

3. Development of Fiction
Hardy Return of the Native, The May of
Paton Cry the Beloved Country
Voltaire Candide
Turgenev Fathers and Sons
Dickens Hard Times
O'Flaherty The Informer
Greene The Power and the Glory
Conrad Heart of Darkness
Kosinski Being There
Orwell 1984
Huxley Brave New World
Plath The Bell Jar
Dickey Deliverance
Roth Goodbye Columbus
Kesey One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
Vonnegut Slaughterhouse Five
O'Connor Wise Blood
Hemingway The Sun Also Rises
Chopin The Awakening
Hurston Their Eyes Were Watching God
Camus The Stranger

4. Development of the Short Story
What Is the Short Story?
Short Story Masterpieces
Contemporary American Short Stories

(Other novels and short stories at the discretion of the teacher, subject to availability)

B. Thematic Units

a. The Tragic Figure
Aeschylus
Sophocles
Euripides
Shakespeare
MacLeish
Beckett
Selected Essays, Poetry and Short Stories

b. Existentialism and the Absurd
Sartre
Camus
Beckett
O'Connor
Ionesco
Albee
MacLeish
Vonnegut
Hemingway
Selected Essays, Poetry and Short Stories

c. The Family
Updike
Albee
Shakespeare
Roth
Olsen
Chopin
Selected Essays, Poetry and Short Stories

d. Social Conscience
Huxley
Orwell
Ibsen
Hardy
Dickens
Conrad
Paton
Weisel
Camus
O'Connor
Selected Essays, Poetry and Short Stories

e. Women's Voice
Chopin
Hurston
Woolf
O'Connor
Plath
Selected Essays, Poetry and Short Stories
Toni Morrison, "Beloved"

f. The Modern "Hero"
Hemingway
Plath
Kesey
Hurst
Selected Essays, Poetry and Short Stories

Films and other material which may be used with either approach:
FILMS: Why Man Creates
Night and Fog
The Red Balloon
Crac!
TEXTS: Philosophy and Literature
Writing Themes about Literature
A Handbook to Literature

B. Honors Mathematics Curriculum

In learning the honors mathematics curriculum, one needs a calculator which will perform, among other things, both common logarithms and natural logarithms.

Following is a list of the honors mathematics textbooks; the syllabi, which run several pages, are omitted.

1. Geometry Honors

Textbook: Geometry for Enjoyment and Challenge by Robert Rhoad, George Milauskas, and Robert Whipple, published by McDougal Littell, ISBN 0-86609-965-4

2. Algebra II Honors

Textbook: Algebra 2 by Alan G. Foster, Berchie W. Gordon, Joan M. Gell, Leslie J. Winters, and James N. Rath, published by Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-675-13118-9

3. Algebra III/Trigonometry Honors

Textbook: Advanced Mathematics by Richard G. Brown, published by McDougal Littell, ISBN 0-395-42168-3

4. Calculus AB and BC

Textbook: Calculus - Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic, published by Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-55478

C. Honors Science Curriculum

In learning the honors science curriculum, the major shortcoming is that learning it on one's own does not involve any laboratory experience. However, learning the honors science curriculum without laboratory experience is better than not learning the honors science curriculum at all.

Following is a listing of the honors science textbooks; the syllabi, which run several pages, are omitted.

1. Physics PSSC Honors

Textbook: PSSC Physics 7th Edition, published by Kendall-Hunt, ISBN 0-8403-6025-8

2. Chem. Study Honors

Textbook: Chemistry - Experimental Foundations, published by Prentice-Hall, ISBN 0-13-129254-4

3. Biology II A.P.

Textbook: Biology 5th Edition by Campbell, published by Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-8053-1957-3

III. Gifted and Talented Courses

Following are three "gifted and talented" courses currently being taught in the Westfield Public Schools. If parents wish to teach the Advanced Mathematics Strand to their children, the parents would need to be proficient in high school level mathematics. If parents wish to teach Economics: An Introduction to Global Trade and Finance to their children, the parents would need to be proficient in college level international trade theory. If parents wish to teach Living Together in Communities Under the Law to their children, the parents would need to be proficient in high school level civics.

A. Advanced Mathematics Strand

Schools: Elementary
Department: Gifted and Talented
Length of course: Continuous strand
Grade Level: 3-4
Date: September 9, 2003
Pilot Program Year: 2003-2004

I. RATIONALE, DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE

A goal of the Westfield Public Schools is to identify and provide appropriate academic and social/emotional services for its profoundly gifted and talented students from grades K-12. Our district addresses the needs of profoundly gifted students by clustering identified students in regular classrooms, differentiating curriculum as appropriate, and providing a pullout experience designed to expose students to advanced in-depth study. The New Jersey Administrative Code requires district boards of education to develop appropriate curricular and instructional modifications for gifted students. Programs must address appropriate content, process, products, and learning environment. Each subject-area curriculum framework developed by the New Jersey Department of Education provides general as well as content-specific information on gifted education. Highlighted in this information is a set of strategies that the Department suggests for school districts to follow when designing curriculum for profoundly gifted students:

O Interdisciplinary and problem-based assignments with planned
scope and sequence
O Advanced, accelerated, or compacted courses
O Abstract and advanced higher-level thinking activities
O Allowance for individual student interests
O Assignments geared to development in areas of affect, creativity,
cognition, and research skills
O Complex, in-depth assignments
O Diverse enrichment that broadens learning
O Variety in types of resources
O Community involvement in student learning
O Projects that focus on cultural diversity
O Internship, mentorship, and other forms of apprenticeship

The vision of the mathematics standards is focused on achieving one crucial goal:

To enable ALL of New Jersey's children to acquire the mathematical skills, understandings, and attitudes that they will need to be successful in their careers and daily lives. (N.J.C.C.C.S.) Mathematically gifted children usually pick up concepts so quickly that they are left with very little to do intellectually in a typical classroom. This situation is troubling, not only because of the obvious waste of potential, but also because there can be serious consequences if bright children are not challenged in their elementary years. The lack of opportunity to think deeply and to experience and learn from frustration, can have disastrous consequences in later life. Young students must experience intellectual frustration in a positive way. They must learn that challenge and effort are a part of learning and a part of life. (Zaccaro, 2000)

The following are key points to consider when designing mathematics curricula for gifted students:

O It is important to develop differentiated curricula for mathematically talented students.

O Mathematically talented students should study a variety of topics, including problem solving, geometry, algebra, arithmetic, number systems, probability and statistics, spatial visualization, and ratio and proportion.

O The core curriculum presented to mathematically talented students needs to be enriched in a systematic manner.

O Teachers of mathematically talented students should go beyond the textbook to differentiate the curriculum, by using manipulatives, math games, and computer programs.

O The National Council of Mathematics Teachers standards should be adapted to accommodate the academic needs of mathematically talented students (Assouline, 2003).

II. OBJECTIVES

A. Students will develop a sense of numbers and become proficient in numerical operations in order to be able to utilize those skills for higher-level mathematical problems.

B. Students will become adept at recognizing shapes and patterns and be able to identify relationships that geometry, measurement, and numerical patterns have to the world around them.

C. Students will explore the concepts of data analysis, probability and discrete mathematics.

D. The students will become fluent problem solvers, and additionally, will be able to articulate metacognitive processes using the language of mathematics.

III. CURRICULUM SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

Grade 3:

1. Ratio and Proportion through an Examination of Pi:

O Students will explore the relationship between a circle's diameter and circumference in order to calculate the ratio expressed in Pi. They will also understand the concept of finite and infinite by researching the various place values of Pi.

O Students will explore early computations of Pi between the years 500 B.C. to 1000 A.D. They will calculate Pi using some early units of measurement, such as a cubit, to express the ratio. Students will compare early cultures in India, Egypt, and Greece and their mathematicians' methods of calculating Pi.

O Students will use the geometric method discovered by Srinavasa Ramanujan's 50 by 50 array of dots in order to estimate the value of Pi.

2. Patterns in Mathematics:

O The students will examine numerical patterns such as the Fibonacci sequence.

O They will identify numerical and computational patterns, as they exist in nature.

O They will also explore the relationship between Pi and the Golden Ratio.

O Students will research current uses of the Fibonacci series and will predict possible uses of the series in scientific research in the future.

3. Problem Solving Steps:

The students will utilize the following techniques for successful problem solving:

O Charts and diagrams
O Think I
O Venn Diagrams
O Function machines
O Algebraic reasoning

4. Large Number Theory and Exploration:

The students will explore the science of large numbers through the medium of astronomy.

O They will examine Eratosthenes' formula for discovering the circumference of the earth, and then explore the scale of the solar system using distance and time.

O The students will be introduced to: speed of light, speed of sound, and parsec. They will also be introduced to the language of large numbers, e.g. novemdecillian, googolplex, etc.

O Finally, the students will synthesize their study of large numbers by creating a historical timeline illustrating the development of numbers and number theory.

Grade 4:

A. Students will explore the mathematics inherent in gamesmanship.

O They will compare and contrast mathematical concepts found in chess, mancala, go, and well as popular card games.

O Ultimately, the students will design and present games of their own based on mathematics.

B. The students will study the geometry of design.

O They will compare patterns and forms for strength, flexibility, sturdiness, etc.

O The students will discover all aspects of geometry as they design and construct towers, bridges, and geodesic structures.

C. The students will explore probability and the formal study of the laws of chance.

O Using hands-on materials, the students will conduct experiments to prove the laws of probability.

O The students will explore adding probabilities as well as means of expressing or diagramming probabilities.

O The students will make predictions based on the laws of probability.

D. The students will explore data and statistics through analysis of authentic samples collected from a variety of sources.

O They will understand and be able to utilize concepts such as mean, median, range, mode, frequency, and significance.

O The students will also discover many means of data display.

O Finally, the students will conduct formal studies of their own design to illustrate the concepts of data analysis.

IV. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES:

A. There will be a wide variety of instructional techniques used with students during this unit of study. These will include: teacher and student-led discussion, independent research and writing, cooperative group activities, discovery-based activities, and differentiation based on readiness, interest, and learning style. The students' diverse interests and needs will be addressed through varied pacing and assignments.

B. Learning will also be enhanced by the use of simulations and hands-on activities.

V. TECHNOLOGY

A. The following technological resources will be utilized in order to enhance the unit: video-tapes, CD-ROMs, relevant Internet sites, calculators, and relevant computer software.

VI. EVALUATION

By the conclusion of this unit, students will demonstrate achivement of the objectives by:

A. Participation in class and group activities
B. Teacher observation and responses to questions
C. Student performance on assignments, quizzes, and tests
D. Student responses in journal format
E. Evaluation of portfolios
F. Demonstration of increased curiosity and awareness about the
world in which we live

VII. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

1. The G&T teacher will be encouraged to seek out other opportunities that provide insight and training regarding the social, emotional, and academic needs of gifted students at the elementary level.

2. The G&T teacher will be encouraged to seek out conferences and workshops focusing on mathematics.

B. Economics: An Introduction to Global Trade and Finance

Schools: Intermediate Schools
Department: Gifted and Talented
Length of Course: One Cycle Course
Grade Level: 7
Date: September 9, 2003
Pilot Program Year: 2003-2004

I. RATIONALE, DESCRIPTION, AND PURPOSE

A goal of the Westfield Public Schools is to identify and provide appropriate academic and social/emotional services for its profoundly gifted and talented students from grades K-12. Our district addresses the needs of profoundly gifted students by clustering identified students in regular classrooms, differentiating curriculum as appropriate, and providing a pullout experience designed to expose students to advanced in-depth study. The New Jersey Administrative Code requires district boards of education to develop appropriate curricular and instructional modifications for gifted students. Programs must address appropriate content, process, products, and learning environment. Each subject-area curriculum framework developed by the New Jersey Department of Education provides general as well as content-specific information on gifted education. Highlighted in this information is a set of strategies that the Department suggests for school districts to follow when designing curriculum for profoundly gifted students:

O Interdisciplinary and problem-based assignments with planned
scope and sequence
O Advanced, accelerated, or compacted content
O Abstract and advanced higher-level thinking activities
O Allowance for individual student interests
O Assignments geared to development in areas of affect, creativity,
cognition, and research skills
O Complex, in-depth assignments
O Diverse enrichment that broadens learning
O Variety in types of resources
O Community involvement in student learning
O Projects that focus on cultural diversity
O Internship, mentorship, and other forms of apprenticeship

This interdisciplinary course integrates language arts (reading, writing, oral communication); social studies (maps, physical geography); and mathematics (data analysis, computation, estimation, charts, and tables). The focus of this cycle course is to introduce students to international trade and finance. Students will explore the interdependence of global neighbors through active learning experiences based on both New Jersey's Social Studies Core Curriculum Content Standards as well as standards outlined by the National Council on Economic Education. Students will analyze macroeconomic concepts by role-playing and simulations. They will use critical and creative thinking in order to solve problems and propose solutions in a rapidly changing global economic community.

II. OBJECTIVES

A. Students will define key economic concepts affecting trade: natural resources, capital resources, human resources, scarcity, and opportunity costs.

B. Students will understand the parameters for voluntary and successful exchange of goods and services between individuals as well as between nations.

C. Students will examine specialization and its role in free trade and market economics.

D. Students will study resources and exchange concepts such as voluntary exchange, interdependence, and standard of living in order to conceptualize trade interdependence.

E. Students will define exchange, imports and exports, and they will explain why countries may import the same type of products that they export.

F. Students will explore markets, market prices, and international currencies.

G. Students will examine the relationship between government policy and trade.

H. Students will analyze income, employment, and prices and their roles in spending and production decisions made by individuals, firms, government agencies, and others in the economy.

III. CONTENT, SCOPE, AND SEQUENCE

A. Resources and Scarcity:

1. Working in groups which represent individual countries, students randomly draw cards from boxes labeled: "natural resources," "human resources," and "capital goods."

2. Students simulate leadership roles by utilizing their resources to provide for citizens by satisfying their wants for food, clothing, housing, medical care, education, and entertainment for one year.

3. Students will realize that some countries do not have adequate resources, and that no one country is able to satisfy all wants.

4. Students will generate ways that countries might deal with their problems of scarcity.

B. Specialization:

1. Pairs of students will play the roles of two friends who have chores to complete before they can spend time together. The students will discover the benefits of specialization and trade.

2. Students will further analyze reasons why people, businesses, and countries can gain by specializing in the production of some goods and services.

C. Trade Flow Patterns:

1. Students will learn about resources from around the world that are used in the production of a specific product, e.g. Hershey's Kisses.

2. Students will determine the identity of a mystery product using clues about world resources that are used to produce it.

3. Students will use world maps to identify trade flow patterns. Through these activities, they will learn about economic interdependence and the benefits of trade.

D. Distribution of Resources:

1. Student groups will represent people in different countries. Each group will receive a packet of materials that represents productive resources.

2. People in each country will use the resources to provide food, clothing, shelter, businesses, and education. Because resources are unevenly distributed, people in the countries must trade in order to satisfy their wants.

E. Standards of Living:

1. Students will participate in an activity to identify countries from around the world. Based on specific information they will learn about these countries, students will complete an "Information Resources Chart."

2. The goal will be to have students recognize what information supplied about the countries can tell them about the various countries' resources and standards of living.

F. Import and Export:

1. Students will participate in a simulation to learn how trade benefits them as individuals and how trade affects people in different regions and countries.

2. Students will learn about the major import and export partners for twelve countries. They will identify exports and imports for each country.

3. Using this information, students will draw conclusions regarding how trade benefits consumers.

4. Students will understand why it benefits two countries to specialize in the production of one of two products and then trade with the other, even if one country has the resources and technology to product more of either good than the other country.

5. They will use numerical examples and bar graphs in order to illustrate this concept.

G. Trade and Trade Barriers:

1. Students will understand how free trade increases worldwide material standards of living and they will also see the effects of trade barriers.

2. Different types of trade barriers will be defined and students will be able to create examples of each type.

H. Tariffs:

1. Students will participate in an activity to help them analyze the costs and benefits of a tariff.

2. Students will learn about special-interest groups and consider the arguments people and organizations use to support the imposition of trade barriers.

I. Currencies and Exchange Rates:

1. Students will participate in a simulation in which they will explore international currency. For example, they can imagine a visit to the "Mall of the World," a large international mall with shops that are owned and operated by people in other countries.

2. Students can choose items to eat at "The Wide World of Taste," an international food court.

3. Prices will be stated in the currencies used by the countries represented, and students will have to use exchange rates to determine how much their lunches will cost. Emphasis will be placed on cultural diversity.

J. Input and Output Markets:

1. Students will recognize that most people and families are both buyers and seller who make exchanges in different kinds of markets.

2. They will understand the relationship between output markets for goods and services and input markets for productive resources.

3. They will also illustrate the circular flow of income.

IV. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES:

A. There will be a wide variety of instructional techniques used with students during this unit of study. These will include: teacher and student-led discussion, independent research and writing, cooperative group activities, discovery-based activities, and differentiation based on readiness, interest, and learning style. The students' diverse interests and needs will be addressed through varied pacing and assignments. The use of computer technology will be integral to the process of research.

B. Inherent in this unit is a high degree of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of information. The students will be encouraged, as directed by the Instructional Adaptations for Exceptionally Able (Gifted) Students, Part C: Social Studies, to generate curiosity about principles, ideas, and how things work. They will be encouraged to pursue methods of inquiry that will lead to a depth of intellectual understanding of the interrelationships between countries and resources in our world.

C. Learning will also be enhanced by the nature of simulations and role-playing, as well as by the expertise of guest speakers.

V. TECHNOLOGY

A. Students will use CD-ROMs as well as relevant Internet sites in order to research concepts relating to this unit. They may also use Microsoft Word as well as PowerPoint presentations to present information to be shared.

VI. EVALUATION

By the conclusion of this course, students will demonstrate achievement of the objectives by:

A. Participation in class and group activities.

B. Teacher observation and responses to questions.

C. Student performance on assignments, quizzes and tests.

D. Student responses in journal.

E. Evaluation of portfolios.

F. Demonstration of increased curiosity and awareness about the world in which we live.

VII. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

A. The G & T teacher will be encouraged to attend workshops or conferences that focus on economics education.

B. The G & T teacher will be encouraged to seek out other opportunities that provide greater insight and training regarding the social, emotional, and economic needs of gifted students.

C. Living Together in Communities Under the Law

Schools: Elementary
Department: Gifted and Talented
Length of Course: One semester
Grade Level: 3
Date: April 22, 2003
Pilot Program Year: 2002-2003

I. RATIONALE, DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE

A goal of the Westfield Public Schools is to identify and provide appropriate academic and social/emotional services for its profoundly gifted and talented students from grades K-12. Our district addresses the needs of profoundly gifted students by clustering identified students in regular classrooms, differentiating curriculum as appropriate, and providing a pullout experience designed to expose students to advanced in-depth study. The New Jersey Administrative Code requires district boards of education to develop appropriate curricular and instructional modifications for gifted students. Programs must address appropriate content, process, products, and learning environment. Each subject-area curriculum framework developed by the New Jersey Department of Education provides general as well as content-specific information on gifted education. Highlighted in this information is a set of strategies that the Department suggests for school districts to follow when designing curriculum for profoundly gifted students:

O Interdisciplinary and problem-based assignments with planned
scope and sequence
O Advanced, accelerated, or compacted content
O Abstract and advanced higher-level thinking activities
O Allowance for individual student interests
O Assignments geared to development in areas of affect, creativity,
cognition, and research skills
O Complex, in-depth assignments
O Diverse enrichment that broadens learning
O Variety in types of resources
O Community involvement in student learning
O Projects that focus on cultural diversity
O Internship, mentorship, and other forms of apprenticeship

This course will combine social studies and literature in order to explore community and the laws relating to the successful cohabitation of its citizens. Students will be able to extend their regular classroom study of "Communities Here and There" as well as "Current Events" as they explore individual rights, societal values, and the structure of the judicial system within our locality, state, and nation. They will become informed and practiced thinkers regarding their own responsibilities as citizens, and they will synthesize their roles as active members of a democratic society. The students will use selected pieces of literature to develop the thinking skills necessary to analyze problems that balance individual freedoms with the needs of the community. They will explore the structure of governance and evaluate issues of fairness with respect to crime, punishment, and equal representation under the law. The students will also compare and contrast our current laws with those of early America then compare our judicial system with those found in other countries. They will make inferences and draw conclusions regarding those societies' values and how they are reflected in their laws. Finally, the students will create a mock trial to be submitted to the New Jersey State Bar Foundation's Law Fair.

II. OBJECTIVES

Please note each Social Studies Core Curriculum Content Standard cited is listed in Appendix I.

A. Students will understand and recognize that rules and laws are essential and play an imporant role in a community.

B. Students will analyze and identify the rights of U.S. citizens guaranteed us by our Constitution.

C. Students will analyze various laws to determine whether or not they have the desired attributes of equality, fairness, consistency, flexibility.

D. Students will compare and contrast contemporary laws with those that are outmoded.

E. Students will compare and contrast U.S. laws with those of other countries.

F. Students will draw conclusions regarding the relationship between a country's values and its laws.

G. Students will be able to identify elements of a court trial, as well as the roles played by judge, jury, bailiff, attorney, and witness.

H. In connection with writing their mock trials, students will demonstrate knowledge and understanding of terms and concepts with the trial process:

i. Civil law vs. Criminal law
ii. Burden of proof
iii. Preponderance of Evidence

I. Students will improve understanding of professions involved with the law through guest speakers, such as attorney, judge, and police officer.

J. Students will write and perform a mock trial.

III. CONTENT, SCOPE, AND SEQUENCE

1. Students will read a fairy tale. They will explore the conflict existing between the characters and their perspectives.

Students will then scan printed material from newspapers and magazines to find and display references to law and the legal process.

2. Students will be grouped to engage in one of several simulations in which they must describe every-day scenarios and develop rules that they deem necessary and appropriate for the given scenario.

3. Students will read an appropriate short story and discuss the moral dilemma therein. They will list arguments for an against helping the character at the risk of harming others.

4. Students will be introduced to the "Bill of Rights" (the first 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution). The students will analyze the meaning of each amendment and work in groups to re-write each amendment in every-day language.

6. Students will watch a video on the drafting of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Afterwards, they will write a "thank you" note to the framers of those documents highlighting why they believe these freedoms are important to them.

7. Students will examine laws and rules to establish characteristics that they have in common. They discuss the concepts of fairness, equality, and consistency. They are introduced to the concept of ex post facto laws.

8. Students will consider how and why laws change over time. They will analyze laws from ancient Greece, the courts of Louis XIV, early Colonial America, and current local ordinances in Westfield, NJ.

9. Students will examine laws that currently exist in foreign countries, such as China, Afghanistan, and Somalia. They will discuss how these laws are different from those guaranteed us by our Constitution. The students will examine possible reasons for how the societal values of those countries play a part in determining their laws.

10. Students will be introduced to the Court System. They will explore the various levels of the judicial system. The various roles within the system will be introduced. The concept of punishment will be examined, and students may take a position on the effectiveness of punishment as a deterrent to crime.

11. Guest speakers (an attorney or judge or police officer) will provide their insights on the judicial system and talk about their roles within it. They will also discuss career planning and day-to-day responsibilities.

12. In preparation for writing their mock trials, students will be introduced to several elements of the process of a court trial.

O Evidence
O Witness
O Testimony
O Burden of proof
O Objection

13. Students will each read one of four of the previous year's winning mock trials published by the New Jersey State Bar Foundation. They will discuss the elements of the trial, and they will share their findings with the larger group. Each case will be analyzed according to the elements of the trial process.

14. The students will begin brainstorming issues for their own mock trials. Students will make an outline containing the issue, setting, witnesses, and evidence relating to their trial.

The students will write their mock trials.

15. The mock trials are presented and the "judge" presides.

*Please note that these mock trial cases will be submitted to the New Jersey Law Fair, sponsored by the New Jersey Bar Association.

IV. INSTURCTIONAL TECHNIQUES:

A. There will be a wide variety of instructional techniquies used with students during this unit of study. These will include: teacher and student-led discussion, independent research and writing, cooperative group activities, discovery-based activities, and differentiation based on readiness, interest, and learning style. The students' diverse interests and needs will be addressed through varied pacing and assignments. The use of computer technology will be integral to the process of research and writing of the mock trials. Ideally, with the use of video editing software, the students can create their own DVD of their trial, complete with voice-overs and musical accompaniment.

B. Inherent in this unit is a high degree of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of information. The students will be encouraged, as directed by the Instructional Adaptations for Exceptionally Able (Gifted) Students, Part C: Social Studies, to generate curiosity about principles, ideas, and how things work. They will be encouraged to pursue methods of inquiry that will lead to a depth of intellectual understanding of the greater whole of citizenship.

C. Learning will also be enhanced by the nature of simulations and role-playing, as well as by the expertise of guest speakers.

D. Students will be exposed to a wide variety of resources and written material, such as: newspapers, magazines, short stories, Internet, maps, globes, video or DVD presentation.

V. TECHNOLOGY

A. The following technological resources will be utilized in order to enhance the unit: video-tapes, CD-ROMs, relevant Internet sites, video recorder, Microsoft Word.

VI. EVALUATION

By the conclusion of this unit, students will demonstrate achievement of the objectives by:

A. Participation in class and group activities
B. Teacher observation and responses to questions
C. Student performance on assignments, quizzes and tests
D. Student responses in journal
E. Evaluation of portfolios
F. Demonstration of increased curiosity and awareness about the
world in which we live
G. Successful completion of a mock trial

VII. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

A. The G & T teacher is advised to attend the annual Law Fair Teachers' Workshop. This workshop is sponsored by the New Jersey Bar Association.

B. The G & T teacher will be encouraged to seek out other opportunities that provide greater insight and training regarding the social, emotional, and academic needs of gifted students.